By AWT every artifact with positive curvature should have a positive (i.e. nonezero) rest mass and the photon - being an isolated particle - is no exception. The particle like character of photons can be observed easily during spreading of gamma rays in spark chamber or by scintillator in spinthariscope, where they're behaving like distinst well defined particles ("scintilla" means "spark" in Greek). Therefore it's nothing strange, if photon increases mass of resonator, whenever it gets trapped into it - as we can observe by mass spectrometer during excitation of atom nuclei, for example.

The theoretical rest mass of photon can be extrapolated as a dynamic mass of photon, when the (wavelength of) photon becomes so large, it will fit the whole observable Universe, so that the photon cannot move and it stay at rest in it. This value is incredibly low, though and it can be estimated by using of

*E=hν*formula to some 10E-61 kg. Albeit low, it can result into observable violation of Compton law at Planck scale (pair formation) and into light speed invariance violation at cosmic scale (for example by polarization of microwaves by vacuum and by dispersion of gamma rays, as observed by GZK limit or by MAGIC telescope during Mkn 501 flash).

The effective rest mass of photon could become even higher (~10E-17 kg), if we consider, the photons, whose wavelength is longer then human scale would dissapear in the noise of cosmic microwave backround (CMB) radiation, where only entangled light waves can spread effectivelly. In adition, photons of wavelength larger the human / CMB scale (~1.7 cm) are behaving rather like weak holes in the ocean of CMB photons, so they should be expelled by them in gravity field, instead.

The general problem in misunderstanding of special relativity consist in mixing of light and photon concepts. Light wave can be local, but the photon isn't never quite local thing, it has a finite (albeit typically quite small) size. It means, only light wave can move by speed of light, but not photon. For wavelength comparable to CMB radiation the light can consist only from waves, but not photons, because these size of photons are comparable to CMB noise size, so they cannot be distinguished from it. For longer wavelengths, then those of CMB the negative rest mass photons can be postulated, and the speed of such "negative curvature" photons becomes superluminal - the character of such waves will converge to longitudinal gravitational waves, which are inherently superluminal. The superluminal portion of microwave light enables to escape it from black hole as a Hawking radiation for example, which makes the whole concept testable.

"All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it,

but he is mistaken." (Albert Einstein, 1954)

By AWT space-time curvature is formed by gradient of mass/energy density of Aether. This gradient can appear like blob / droplet (positive curvature) or like bubble / hole (negative curvature). For example the hole in cheese is of negative curvature. Graviton foam has (nearly) a zero curvature.

OdpovědětVymazathttp://superstruny.aspweb.cz/images/fyzika/quantum/gravitons.gif

If Howking radiation exist, it would mean, here can exist photons, the wavelength of which is longer then the wavelength of cosmic microwave background. Such photons therefore have a lower curvature then their environment - they've lower mass, then empty space - i.e. they've a negative mass.

OdpovědětVymazatThey're behaving like tachyons, so they can escape from black hole, the curvature of which is serving like Maxwell daemon, separating tachyons from the rest. This gives certain meaning with respect of gravitational waves, because by AWT these waves are highly superluminal as well and as such they have an extraordinarily long wavelength.

If we are sitting inside of black hole (as AWT is assuming), we could see all photons, which are leaving our Universe like tachyons. So if during interference of CMB radiation some photon of longer wavelengh will be formed, we can expect, such photon may dissapear from our Universe, i.e. from our sight less or more lately - our Universe is leaking energy in this way, so it can collapse from exsintric perspective.

It means - the only photons, whose rest mass is exactly zero are the photons of cosmic microwave background - they behave like photons, the wavelength of which fits whole observable Universe, so they cannot move in it. This has some meaning as well, because in AWT CMB photons are forming a graviton foam background of another (i.e. former) generation of Universe, which expanded to current size during inflation - i.e. they're forming a quantum foam of further generation of Universe.

We can say, these subtle photons can form everything, what we can see around us - it just requires proper compactification of space, which just requires a sufficient amount of time. It's strange logics - but still quite consistent with existing theories and observations.

How can a photon be massless if it has impact on other particles and is affected by gravity?

OdpovědětVymazatIndeed - but the main source of controversy here becomes the "rest mass" of photon, where special relativity becomes singular.

OdpovědětVymazatThese experiments are technically impressive, but I've still a slight problem with detection of boson nature of photons just inside of atom orbitals - this environment has higher mass/energy density then the vacuum, so that lightweight photons will behave more like waves here. It's the similar stuff, like the attempt to prove particle nature of electrons inside of dense neutron star - inside of such extremely dense environment even common leptons will be mostly dissolved into bosons.

OdpovědětVymazatAnyway, as we know from scattering observations in vacuum the mutual cross-section of photon-photon interaction is very low, but it's not completely zero.

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..96h3602L

The similar case are mesons or gluons, which are behaving like bosons inside of atom nuclei, but outside of it they're forming fermions or glueballs. Mesons were considered in older Yukawa model as the carriers of the nuclear force that holds all atomic nuclei together (except for hydrogen-1).

OdpovědětVymazatLight is Heavy

OdpovědětVymazatOn the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy.