neděle 26. října 2008

AWT, inflation and brane cosmology

AWT reconciles the brane cosmology (so called ekpyrotic Universe) with Guth's concept of cosmic inflation and Big Bang cosmology by modeling of condensation of matter inside of dense star, collapsing by it's own gravity by assumption, the gravitational collapse has started from many places at the same moment. The spherical zones of condensing vacuum has intersect mutually under formation of foamy structure of metastable shock waves, similar to condensation of supercooled liquid or supersaturated solution:

As the result, observable matter has condensed both into sparse particle clouds, both into dense overheated droplets of metastable matter, so called quasars, sitting in the nodes of resulting foamy structure of dark matter. The finely divided matter has formed small galaxies and stellar clusters without central black holes by mechanism of gradual gravitational collapse, which doesn't differ significantly from contemporary mainstream cosmology. But the formation of large galaxies was completely different by AWT.

After releasing of pressure, quasars have started to evaporate their excessive matter into radiation, which has condensed partially near quasars, whenever the intensity of gravitational field has decreased bellow certain value. The quasars were surrounded by particles of matter and antimatter, which have exchanged their mass by radiation on behalf of observable matter. The resulting particles were formed by atom nuclei up to silicon, which recombined with electrons under formation of heavy clouds of dense dust, surrounding the active galactic nuclei. The particles of dust were kept at the safe distance by radiative pressure of central quasars inside it. The newly formed galaxies were of spherical shape and they were only slightly radiative because of strong light absorption by dust particles.

The central quasars were formed by "naked singularities", i.e. neutrino stars without event horizons. When the excessive mass of quasar has evaporated, the quasars were covered by event horizons with exception of polar jets (compare the black hole theory in previous post). This symmetry violation has given the flat shape and rotation to resulting galaxies, which were tossed like pizza dough. At the very end, the black holes rested at the centers of galaxies as a cold remnants of quasars with weak antimatter signal around it and the spherical shape of galaxies was restored gradually by tidal forces.

The dual AWT cosmology is based on understanding, the observable matter is metastable phase in contact with vacuum and it has tendency to evaporate at elevated temperature and/or gravity field intensity. Therefore the matter must be formed by another mechanism and the black holes can play an active role in it. In addition, a recent observation supports the above model by presence of giant black holes and sparsely distributed, but well developed galaxies composed of heavy elements even at the most distant/old parts of Universe. This model considers upper limit of giant black holes, above which the matter is radiated, not swallowed by black holes. This upper limit follows from modified theory of gravity, the quantum gravity in particular, as predicted by AWT.

Remark 1: This idea was originally presented before three years and it was recently disputed in Nature News and NewScientist article, so it belongs into testable predictions of AWT, because we can observe remnants of this process both by stars formation near black hole inside of our gallaxy, both by galaxies formation near distant qausars.

Remark 2: This idea has relevance to so called shock wave cosmology of black holes, as proposed by J. Smoller and B. Temple [PNAS, 2002]. I hope, these connections will make whole stuff more interesting for the rest of cosmologists.

Remark 3: While cosmologists are aware of the fact, the brane collisions should left some traces on CMB background, it seems, nobody tried to connect the foamy structure of dark matter with is concept of penetrating branes - supposedly because nobody has considered their material nature and because ekpyrotic cosmology is illustrated quite abstract and meaningless way.

Remark 4: Anonymous barkster user has noted a simmilarity of black hole jets with jets formed by collision of water (mem)branes. This connection has really some relevance here, as by AWT black hole jets are temporal artifacts too and it can be interpreted as a product of spontaneous symmetry breaking of event horizon.

AWT and black holes theory

By AWT the black holes are the last stage of gravitational collapse, being dense stars (i.e. collapsars) formed mostly by top quarks at the surface, by neutrinos and axions at the center. Their gravitational field can be interpreted simply by gradient of mass/energy density of vacuum, so that the event horizon of black holes is the result of so called total reflection phenomena. This is because the surface of every massive body in 3D increases with square root of its mass, whereas its volume increases with cube-root, so that the surface gradient increases gradually, until it fulfills the total reflection condition.

This rule has its own exceptions at the case of very large black holes, where the energy density of surface gradient cannot be neglected anymore. The surface energy density of space-time curvature balances the mass density of black hole itself and it leads to the violation of total reflection condition again. Such giant black holes will change into so called quasar or fuzzball (or "naked singularity" by older models, although such stars needn't may not contain any daughter singularity at all), which is quite radiative. At the case or rotating black holes the total reflection is violated at the poles of quasar first, so that the black holes of the average size are exhibiting polar jets, which can be considered as a exaggerated case of so called gravity brightening, which can be observed at the case of giant, fast rotating stars (like Regulus at the left picture bellow). It means, the polar jets are insintric property of large black holes by AWT, not just the result of collimation of accretion radiation and the shining black hole is losing its mass by such way.

The total reflection mechanism enables us to explain, why black hole cannot reflect the light, the wavelengths of which is higher then the effective diameter of event horizon. The evanescent waves escaping the event horizon can serve as an analogy to quantum tunneling of photons by classical Hawking mechanism. In addition, every "scratching" of event horizon by impact of heavy object will lead to violation of total reflection and the release of giant flashes of gamma radiation from interior of black hole, for example during black hole collisions.

From AWT follows, the internal surface of event horizon will be quite reflective for short waves, which has even its own testable implications (a model of cosmic hall of mirrors). The extreme red shift will complicate the search for reflections and dodecahedral space topology, though. It may still be possible, the faint structures observable in far infrared spectrum are the result of reflections from internal walls of our universe. In this connection the analogy between inner and outer perspective of black holes and the archetypes of hell and heavens may be interesting. Are we descendants of creatures, who passed through event horizon in their recent history? Nonetheless, AWT model of black holes appears quite predicative, although here are always many alternative ways, how to interpret such observations.
For example, at the case, some black holes will get close mutually, so called Einstein-Rosen bridge (a "worm hole") may be formed, which connects the parallel universes less or more partially. This mechanism was proposed recently for explanation of so called CMB cold spot in constellation of Eridanus - although it seems, this spot is formed rather by large cloud of dust, shielding the CMB.