neděle 26. října 2008

AWT, inflation and brane cosmology

AWT reconciles the brane cosmology (so called ekpyrotic Universe) with Guth's concept of cosmic inflation and Big Bang cosmology by modeling of condensation of matter inside of dense star, collapsing by it's own gravity by assumption, the gravitational collapse has started from many places at the same moment. The spherical zones of condensing vacuum has intersect mutually under formation of foamy structure of metastable shock waves, similar to condensation of supercooled liquid or supersaturated solution:

As the result, observable matter has condensed both into sparse particle clouds, both into dense overheated droplets of metastable matter, so called quasars, sitting in the nodes of resulting foamy structure of dark matter. The finely divided matter has formed small galaxies and stellar clusters without central black holes by mechanism of gradual gravitational collapse, which doesn't differ significantly from contemporary mainstream cosmology. But the formation of large galaxies was completely different by AWT.

After releasing of pressure, quasars have started to evaporate their excessive matter into radiation, which has condensed partially near quasars, whenever the intensity of gravitational field has decreased bellow certain value. The quasars were surrounded by particles of matter and antimatter, which have exchanged their mass by radiation on behalf of observable matter. The resulting particles were formed by atom nuclei up to silicon, which recombined with electrons under formation of heavy clouds of dense dust, surrounding the active galactic nuclei. The particles of dust were kept at the safe distance by radiative pressure of central quasars inside it. The newly formed galaxies were of spherical shape and they were only slightly radiative because of strong light absorption by dust particles.

The central quasars were formed by "naked singularities", i.e. neutrino stars without event horizons. When the excessive mass of quasar has evaporated, the quasars were covered by event horizons with exception of polar jets (compare the black hole theory in previous post). This symmetry violation has given the flat shape and rotation to resulting galaxies, which were tossed like pizza dough. At the very end, the black holes rested at the centers of galaxies as a cold remnants of quasars with weak antimatter signal around it and the spherical shape of galaxies was restored gradually by tidal forces.

The dual AWT cosmology is based on understanding, the observable matter is metastable phase in contact with vacuum and it has tendency to evaporate at elevated temperature and/or gravity field intensity. Therefore the matter must be formed by another mechanism and the black holes can play an active role in it. In addition, a recent observation supports the above model by presence of giant black holes and sparsely distributed, but well developed galaxies composed of heavy elements even at the most distant/old parts of Universe. This model considers upper limit of giant black holes, above which the matter is radiated, not swallowed by black holes. This upper limit follows from modified theory of gravity, the quantum gravity in particular, as predicted by AWT.

Remark 1: This idea was originally presented before three years and it was recently disputed in Nature News and NewScientist article, so it belongs into testable predictions of AWT, because we can observe remnants of this process both by stars formation near black hole inside of our gallaxy, both by galaxies formation near distant qausars.

Remark 2: This idea has relevance to so called shock wave cosmology of black holes, as proposed by J. Smoller and B. Temple [PNAS, 2002]. I hope, these connections will make whole stuff more interesting for the rest of cosmologists.

Remark 3: While cosmologists are aware of the fact, the brane collisions should left some traces on CMB background, it seems, nobody tried to connect the foamy structure of dark matter with is concept of penetrating branes - supposedly because nobody has considered their material nature and because ekpyrotic cosmology is illustrated quite abstract and meaningless way.

Remark 4: Anonymous barkster user has noted a simmilarity of black hole jets with jets formed by collision of water (mem)branes. This connection has really some relevance here, as by AWT black hole jets are temporal artifacts too and it can be interpreted as a product of spontaneous symmetry breaking of event horizon.

5 komentářů:

  1. Low number of satellite gallaxies around Milky Way seems to support AWT cosmology, by which matter of Milky Way gallaxy was formed by evaporation of primordial black hole, rather the gravitational accretion of sparse matter into it.

  2. The idea of matter formed by evaporation of primordial black holes isn't new at all and it's even presented as a "mainstream cosmological theory" (F.Adams, G.Laughlin: The Five Ages of the Universe 1999) - albeit the Hawking mechanism proposed for evaporation of primordial black holes is apparently insuficient for formation of massive gallaxies.

    As of June 2009, Gregory Laughlin makes the following statement on his web site:

    "A large number of interesting developments have occurred in physics and astronomy since the book was written, and many of these advances have a strong impact on our understanding of how the future will unfold. Fred and I are currently working on an update of the material in The Five Ages. ".

  3. Recently, two another evidences from this model have emerged.

    Scientists had calculated that Sagittarius A* should consume only about 1% of the available dust. But now a team of astronomers, including Roman Shcherbakov of Harvard University, claims that it is consuming much less than that.

    David Elbaz's team of astrophysicists is convinced, that galaxies were zapped into existence by nearby black holes. But critics of this idea point out, that there was simply not enough time in the first billion years after the big bang for stellar-mass black holes to merge into something big enough.

  4. Recent observations are indicating, there exists objects older then the Big Bang or (clash of branes) or whatever else - which prefers block models of Universe over these, derived on Big Bang. In AWT the appearance of Universe is rather a product of dispersion - if we travel to the most distant parts of Universe, we could see it in the same state, like we can observe these distant areas from our place by now. It means, formation of Universe is rather an illusion.

  5. Massive Distant Galaxy Calls Theory into Question HUDF-JD2 galaxy is seen as the universe was only about 800 million years old. The universe today is about 13.6 billion years old. But the HUDF-JD2 galaxy appears more massive and mature than expected. It made about eight times more mass in terms of stars than are found in our own Milky Way today, and then, just as suddenly, it stopped forming new stars. It appears to have grown old prematurely.